OLYMPIC MOVEMENT CODE ON THE PREVENTION OF THE MANIPULATION OF COMPETITIONS
Important tools to protect sport’s credibility and integrity have been created since the adoption of Olympic Agenda 2020. These include the Olympic Movement Code on the Prevention of the Manipulation of Competitions (OM Code PMC) that was approved by the IOC Executive Board in December 2015. First implemented at the Olympic Games Rio 2016, the Code aims to provide sports organisations with harmonised regulations in compliance with provisions of the Council of Europe Convention on the Manipulation of Sports Competitions in order to protect all competitions from the risk of manipulation. It defines violations and minimum standards for disciplinary procedures.
Full text of the Code:
WHO SHOULD IMPLEMENT THE CODE?
All sports organisation bound by the Olympic Charter must respect the Code (OM Code PMC, preamble e. and art. 7.1, Olympic Charter Rule 1.4).
OM Code PMC, Preamble, e: ‘Sports Organisations bound by the Olympic Charter and the IOC Code of Ethics declare their commitment to support the integrity of sport and fight against the manipulation of competitions by adhering to the standards set out in this Code and by requiring their members to do likewise. Sports Organisations are committed to take all appropriate steps within their powers to incorporate this Code by reference, or to implement regulations consistent with or more stringent than this Code.’
OM Code PMC Art.7.1: ‘Pursuant to Rule 1.4 of the Olympic Charter, all Sports Organisations bound by the Olympic Charter agree to respect this Code.’
Olympic Charter Rule 1.4: ‘Any person or organisation belonging in any capacity whatsoever to the Olympic Movement is bound by the provisions of the Olympic Charter and shall abide by the decisions of the IOC’
IS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CODE MANDATORY?
The Olympic Charter states that all International Sports Federations (IFs) within the Olympic Movement must adopt and implement the OM Code PMC (Rule 25) and that during the Olympic Games, compliance with the OM Code PMC is mandatory for the whole Olympic Movement (Rule 43).
Olympic Charter Part 3: The International Federations, Rule 25: Recognition of IFs. In order to develop and promote the Olympic Movement, the IOC may recognise as IFs international non-governmental organisations governing one or several sports at the world level, which extends by reference to those organisations recognized by the IFs as governing such sports at the national level. The statutes, practice and activities of the IFs within the Olympic Movement must be in conformity with the Olympic Charter, including the adoption and implementation of the World Anti-Doping Code as well as the Olympic Movement Code on the Prevention of Manipulation of Competitions. Subject to the foregoing, each IF maintains its independence and autonomy in the governance of its sport.
Olympic Charter Part 5: Olympic Games, Rule 43: World Anti-Doping Code and the Olympic Movement Code on the Prevention of Manipulation of Competitions. Compliance with the World Anti-Doping Code and the Olympic Movement Code on the Prevention of Manipulation of Competitions is mandatory for the whole Olympic Movement.
Therefore, it is mandatory for:
- all international sports federations officially recognised by the IOC to implement the Code;
- all international and national sports federations who are Olympic sports to implement the Code for the upcoming Olympic Games at which they are to take part.
HOW DOES A SPORTS ORGANISATION IMPLEMENT THE CODE AND WHAT SUPPORT IS PROVIDED?
The Olympic Movement Unit on the Prevention of the Manipulation of Competitions (OM Unit PMC) is tasked with coordinating, supporting, monitoring and promoting the fight against competition manipulation. One of the Unit’s core activities is to monitor the implementation of the Code by sports organisations. Each sports organisations bound by the Olympic Charter is responsible for the implementation of applicable Code provisions through policies, statutes, rules, regulations and programmes according to their authority and jurisdiction.
The OM Unit PMC has developed Model Rules for International, Regional and National Federations, National Olympic Committees and Major Event Organisers to assist in drafting competition manipulation rules in line with the Code.
- International, Regional and National Federations;
- National Olympic Committees;
- Major Event Organisers.
Guidelines provide sports organisations with recommended practice for specific aspects of the fight against competition manipulation. Such Guidelines are not mandatory and are subject to ongoing review and reassessment. The OM Unit PMC encourages feedback on the content of the Guidelines and recommends that stakeholders always consult this Web site for the latest version.
Guidelines for the Sanctioning of Competition Manipulation by Sports Organisations:
These Guidelines have been drafted to assist sports organisations, and specifically their disciplinary organs, in decisions regarding the sanctioning of violations under the OM Code PMC. The recommended sanctions outlined in the Guidelines are in no way intended to impose a mandatory standardisation of sanctions but rather to guide sports’ disciplinary bodies in establishing consistent, proportionate, effective, necessary, deterrent and fair sanctions while recognising the diversity of legal systems and approaches amongst sports organisations globally. Available upon request from: OMUnitPMC@olympic.org
Code Implementation Support Framework
To ensure that all sports are protected from risks to their integrity posed by competition manipulation through a h2 regulatory framework, the OM Unit on the PMC has developed a Code Implementation Support Framework. This Framework aims to reinforce athlete and public confidence that all sports competitions are free from competition manipulation and those who are involved are fairly investigated and prosecuted.
CODE IMPLEMENTATION SUPPORT FRAMEWORK
Step 1: Implementation
- Sports Organisations to amend regulations to implement the Olympic Movement Code on the Prevention of the Manipulation of Competitions.
Step 2: Implementation Questionnaire
- A questionnaire has been developed to measure implementation of the OM Code PMC by sports organisations.
- All sports organisations are invited to complete the Questionnaire here.
Step 3: Code Implementation Check and Tailored Support
- Upon receipt of the Questionnaire responses by the OM Unit PMC, the responses will be reviewed
- The sport’s organisation will subsequently be informed of implementation status and any potential amendments and adaptive actions required. Tailored legal support may be provided.
WHAT IS THE SITUATION OF PROFESSIONAL LEAGUES AND SPORTS ORGANISATIONS OUTSIDE THE OLYMPIC MOVEMENT IN RELATION TO THE CODE?
Members of these leagues must comply with the Code when they take part in events or tournaments under the jurisdiction of organisations that have implemented it such as when playing at the Olympic Games or at World Championships.
HOW SHOULD SPORTS ORGANISATIONS WHO ARE NOT SPORTS EVENT ORGANISERS APPLY THIS CODE?
If your organisation is not an event organiser yet your organisation is bound by the Olympic Charter, your responsibilities under the Code may include the following:
- to ensure that your member organisations implement regulations in compliance with the Code;
- to require as a condition of membership or recognition that policies and rules are compliant with the applicable provisions of the Code;
- to undertake educational measures for your athletes, entourage, officials, judges and referees;
- to require members to report any information suggesting or relating to a violation of competition manipulation rules to their National Olympic Committee and IF and to cooperate with investigations conducted by any organisation with authority to conduct the investigation;
- to vigorously pursue all potential competition manipulation rule violations within your jurisdiction;
- to cooperate with relevant national organisations and agencies, particularly law enforcement.
See Model Rules for NOCs available here.
HOW IS THE OM UNIT PMC ORGANISED FOR SUPPORTING CODE IMPLEMENTATION BY SPORTS ORGANISTAIONS?
The OM Unit PMC works with a Legal Expert Group and external experts to ensure that all sports organisations who are to implement the OM Code PMC have the necessary legal support. The Members of the Legal Expert Group provide independent, expert advice and include experts in compliance from numerous industries. The Legal Expert Group makes recommendations to the OM Unit PMC Advisory Board on Code Implementation and review matters.
WHAT SUPPORT DOES THE OM UNIT PMC PROVIDE FOR EDUCATION, CAPACITY BUILDING, INTELLIGENCE ETC?
Education and Capacity Building:
Intelligence and Investigations:
- IOC Integrity and Compliance Hotline;
- Integrity Betting Intelligence System (IBIS);
- INTERPOL-IOC ‘Fact-Finding Trainings’ for Sports Organisations
WHO SHOULD MY ORGANISATION CONTACT IF WE HAVE QUESTIONS?
Olympic Movement Unit on the Prevention of the Manipulation of Competitions
SPORTS BETTING AT THE OLYMPIC GAMES
Since 2006, the IOC Code of Ethics has prohibited all participants at the Olympic Games from betting on Olympic events, and obliges all participants to report any approach or suspicion of manipulation. In addition, specific rules are drafted for each edition of the Olympic Games:
- Rules for the Application during the Olympic Games Tokyo 2020 of Articles 7 to 10 of the Code of Ethics and of the Olympic Movement Code on the Prevention of the Manipulation of Competitions.
- Rules for the Application to the XXIII Olympic Winter Games PyeongChang 2018 of Articles 7, 9 and 10 of the Code of Ethics and of the Olympic Movement Code on the Prevention of the Manipulation of Competitions to apply mutatis mutandis to the Youth Olympic Games Lausanne 2020
- XXIII Olympic Winter Games PyeongChang 2018 Rules on the Prevention of the Manipulation of Competitions
- The Rules of Application during the Games of the XXXI Olympiad in 2016 in Rio de Janeiro
- 2006-2014 Olympic Games rules
COUNCIL OF EUROPE CONVENTION ON THE MANIPULATION OF COMPETITIONS
The Council of Europe Convention on the Manipulation of Competitions is the only specific international convention in relation to competition manipulation. Non-European states may become signatories.
The Convention notably calls for the establishment of ‘National Platforms’:
- to serve as an information hub;
- to coordinate the fight against the manipulation of sports competitions;
- to receive, centralise and analyse suspicious sports betting;
- to pass on information to public authorities, sports organisations or sports betting operators; and
- to cooperate with all organisations and relevant authorities at national and international levels.
The IOC was involved in the drafting of the Convention, supports the Council of Europe in the implementation of the Convention, and is closely cooperating with the network of existing national platforms.
MODEL CRIMINAL LAW PROVISIONS FOR THE PROSECUTION OF COMPETITION MANIPULATION
In June 2016, the IOC and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) launched their joint publication “Model Criminal Law Provisions for the Prosecution of Competition Manipulation: Booklet for Legislators”. Download the publication in English, Vietnamese, Arabic, and Spanish.
Based on an extensive legal analysis of 52 national jurisdictions that criminalise match-fixing, the booklet includes a checklist of “best practice” elements identified from national legislation. It also proposes Model Criminal Law Provisions and additional guidelines for consideration by national legislators seeking to introduce legislative measures to combat competition manipulation. The whole study is available here.