The International Olympic Committee (IOC), the Organising Committee of the Olympic Games (OCOG), International Sports Federations (IFs) and National Olympic Committees (NOCs) all work in partnership to deliver the Games and each has a well-defined role to play throughout the preparations.
As the leader of the Olympic Movement, one of the IOC’s main tasks is electing the host city and then overseeing the preparation for the Games, as well as assisting organisers in a variety of ways.
During the seven years of preparations, the IOC checks the host city’s progress on a regular basis and provides support and expertise in a number of different areas.
Among its responsibilities is the definition of the Games requirements, the finalising of the sports on the programme and the production and delivery of the international broadcast feed to all rights-holding broadcasters via the IOC-owned Olympic Broadcasting Services (OBS).
Through revenues generated by global sponsorship agreements and the sale of worldwide TV rights, the IOC also provides significant funds to the Organising Committee to help finance the Games and enables future host cities to benefit from the experience of past Games organisers through a dedicated programme of knowledge transfer.
The OCOG, meanwhile, is responsible for the practical aspects of organising the Games, often with the support of public authorities and agencies. The organisers have seven years to prepare, during which time they must oversee the delivery of the necessary infrastructure– such as stadiums, training facilities and the Olympic Village – while also planning and providing essential services to help the Games run smoothly, such as ticketing, transport, catering, accommodation, medical facilities, technology and finance, to name a few.
The OCOG also establishes a domestic sponsorship programme to support its operations and a Cultural Olympiad to run alongside the Games, with concerts, exhibitions and festivals taking place before and during the event.
As well as being advised by the IOC Coordination Commission, the OCOG also works closely with the IFs and NOCs.
Each IF is in charge of running its particular sport during the Games, which includes all technical aspects of the events, such as defining the competition rules, setting the specifications for sport equipment and the field of play or nominating judges and officials.
Prior to the Games, the OCOG finalises the competition schedule and ensures the sporting venues meet their needs.
The NOCs, meanwhile, are responsible for organising their countries’ participation in the Games, as well as promoting the Olympic Movement within their territories.
Their most visible role during the Games is to select and prepare their Olympic team and bring their athletes to the Games. NOCs also select which representatives from their national press receive accreditation for the Games and advise OCOGs on core issues, such as their athletes’ needs and the requirements of the Olympic Village.